Chemical studies of roman wall paintings


G. Corso, M. Gelzo M, A. Chambery, V. Severino, A. Di Maro, F. S. Lomoriello, O. D'Apolito, A. Dello Russo, P. Gargiulo, C. Piccioli and P. Arcari. Characterization of pigments and ligands in a wall painting fragment from Liternum archaeological park (Italy). J Sep Sci. 2012 Nov,35(21): 2986-93.

G. Corso , M. Gelzo, C.Sanges, A. Chambery, A. Di Maro, V. Severino, A. Dello Russo, C. Piccioli and P. Arcari. Polar and non-polar organic binder characterization in Pompeian wall paintings: comparison to a simulated painting mimicking an “a secco” technique. Anal Bioanal Chem (2012) 402: 3011–3016.


Antonella Casoli and Sara Santoro. Organic materials in the wall paintings in Pompei: a case study of Insula del Centenario. Chemistry Central Journal 2012, 6:107.


R. Piovesan, R. Siddall, C. Mazzoli, L. Nodari, L; (2011) The Temple of Venus (Pompeii): a study of the pigments and painting techniques. J Archaeol Sci (2011) 38 (10): 2633-2643.


Eduardo J. Millán Sañudo. La Técnica Parietal Romana. Análisis del Proceso Técnico Mural Romano en el Área Vesubiana. PhD Thesis. Universidad de Sevilla, Facultad de Bellas Artes, Departamento de Historia. Sevilla, 2011.


Selim Augusti. La tecnica dell'antica pittura parietale pompeiana. Pompeiana, Studi per il 2° Centenario degli Scavi di Pompei. Napoli 1950, 313-354. Augusti supposed that the original painting consisted of a mixture of lime and soap in water to which melted beeswax was added.


A. Durán, M. C. Jiménez de Haro, J. L. Pérez-Rodríguez, M. L. Franquelo, L. K. Herrera and A. Justo. Determination of pigments and binders in Pompeian wall paintings using Synchrotron radiation - high resolution X-ray powder diffraction and conventional spectroscopy - chromatography. Archaeometry. Sep 18 2009.


Irene Aliatis, Danilo Bersani, Elisa Campani, Antonella Casoli, Pier Paolo Lottici, Silvia Mantovan and Iari-Gabriel Marino. Pigments used in Roman wall paintings in the Vesubian area. Journal of Raman Spectroscopy (2010) 41, 1249-50.


Augusti, 1950, 346.


Hermann Kühn. Detection and identification of waxes, including punic wax, by infra-red spectrography. Studies in Conservation, 5 (1960), 78.


José Cuní y Jorge Cuní. Consideraciones en torno a la técnica grecorromana de la encáustica. Archivo Español de Arqueología, 66 (1993), 107-124. First publication of thesis that water-soluble encaustic consisted of an emulsion of beeswax and soap.


Jorge Cuní, Pedro Cuní, Brielle Eisen, Ruben Savizky and John Bové. Characterization of the binding medium used in Roman encaustic paintings on wall and wood. Anal. Methods, 2012, 4, 659-669.